Molecule Explorer

Jürgen Richter-Gebert



The model shows a collection of charged particles interacting under mutual forces. Each particle is equipped (besides its charage) also with a small range repelling force that dominates the forces caused by the charges. This force ensures that particles cannot get arbitrarily close. With the sliders the parameters for charges the repelling radii and global friction and temperature (random movement) can be adjusted. Observe that the model tends to exhibit high level emergent structures like local crystal structure. The emergent structures depend sensibly on the choice of parameter.

A similar model is shown ind the MiMa Museum in Oberwolfach [1].


  • Jürgen Richter-Gebert.
    Interactive particle model explorer.
    Museum for Minerals and Mathematics, Oberwolfach, 2015.

Prof. Dr. Dr. Jürgen Richter-Gebert   +

University: TU München, Zentrum Mathematik, M10, 02.06.054
Address: Boltzmannstr. 3, 85748 Garching bei München, GERMANY
Tel: +49 89 28918354
E-Mail: richter[at]